Only a small number of leukocyturia detected indicates acute cystitis in urine specimens of 30% of women with painful, frequent urination, that was caused by bacteria.
The importance is to identify between the manifestations of sexually transmitted diseases and infections such as urethritis and cystitis, which are caused by Escherichia coli.
The characteristics of chlamydia and gonorrhea are gradual onset, the absence of hematuria and pain over the pubis.
The recent change of sexual partners prompts cervicitis, which causes mucopurulent discharges. Positive test results of the sexual partner help confirm the diagnosis.
The diagnosis of gonococcal or chlamydial urethritis also helps identify cervicitis. Usually, the patient has a history of urinary tract infections, each lasting just a few days( around three). Escherichia coli causes gross hematuria, pain over the pubis and acute onset.
For this reason, both upper and lower parts of the urinary tract are if there are strict indications of urolithiasis, painless hematuria and relapse of pyelonephritis; or in case of recurrent infection of the urinary tract.
However, urinary tract infections in men are usually concomitant pathology. So for them, it is necessary to have a urological examination.
Both women and men with a combination of acute urinary tract infection and urinary tract obstruction symptoms or urolithiasis need to have an ultrasound of the kidneys and urinary tract, followed by an IVP or CT-Scan.