There are several different types of urinary tract infections. There are acute infections of the lower (urethritis, cystitis) and upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis, kidney abscess, perinephritis).
The infection process can be superficial - limited to the mucous membrane in the lower urinary tract, or deep with pyelonephritis attacking the kidney such as in the presence of inflammation and even abscess in the affected organ.
The microbiological criterion of infection is considered to be the detection of the pathogen in the urine, urethra, or kidney.
The presence of infection can be confirmed identifying the concentration of bacteria. The excess of 100,000 of pathogenic bacteria per 1/ml of urine obtained helps support this fact.
Not all infections reach this level of the concentration of bacteria. The level of bacteria measuring 100-10000 in 1/ml if the specimen of urine obtained from the bladder either in using a catheter or suprapubic aspiration may determine the presence of an infection in combination with the presence of characteristic symptoms of inflammation.
Following proper protocol in the collection of the urine specimen is very important. When high levels several types of microorganisms are discovered; then contamination resulting from an improperly collected specimen is suspected.
Following the implementing of antibacterial treatment; recurring urinary tract infections are divided into two categories. Recurrent infections often stem from the same pathogen and repeated or (reinfection), are as a result of a different strain.
Sensitivity to antibiotics is determined particularly after serotyping is performed to recognize multiple strains.
Recurrent infection commonly appears 2 weeks after the end of treatment. They are caused by the presence of the pathogen in the kidneys, or by the continued dissemination of the vaginal microflora.